Folded Mountains: Part 2

 Peña Ubiña Spain

Continued from The Biggest Wrinkles Ever: Folded Mountains

We know that there are 4 kinds of mountains:

  • Volcanoes
  • Highlands surrounded by eroded valleys
  • Raised up crustal Rocks (with 2 sub-types, domes and fault-block)
  • Scrunched up crustal Rocks

This week we’re learning about this fourth type: Fold Mountains. Not only are these whole ranges folded, but many of them have some amazing folded rocks in them. I saw some of these enormous folds while visiting the Rockies around Grand Cache, Alberta. Unfortunately, I didn’t have a good camera with me to show you pictures, but you can have a look on a search engine and view some spectacular photos.

cs4k-folded_rock_provo_canyon

How do you get huge sheets of rock to fold up like this without breaking them in pieces?  Turns out rocks don’t always break when they are being forced to change direction.  I had to search and search to find these things out, but it turned out that the page above mentions all 5 of the commonly taught causes for rocks to bend without breaking (called fracturing).

  • (1) Softer rocks can bend more than hard rocks like quartz and granite under everyday conditions.
  • All rocks can bend more when they are (2) hot and (3) pressurized down deep in the earth (15km or more).

But the rocks I’m talking about weren’t down deep, they were near the surface when they were pushed together.

English: Folded rocks near Collieston. This is...

Folded rocks near Collieston. This is a splendid example of a tight recumbent fold, showing the forces which deformed these rocks during the Caledonian mountain building 400 million years ago. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Then the Tulane geology page said the Uniformitarians’ favorite cause with confusing words.  I found a clearer example of this explanation on a science for 3-6th Graders page, “High temperatures and slow deformation rates favor ductile behavior, while low temperature and fast deformation rates lead to brittle behavior.”  In other words,

  • (4) if you bend the rocks slowly enough, you can keep them from breaking.

To find out how slowly they are expecting the rocks to be able to bend without breaking I had to do even more searching.  I found the answer in a really long PDF that would make great geology reading when you get to be a Senior.  Here’s what they say, “Like faults, folds form slowly over millions of years, as rock layers gradually yield to differential stress and bend.”
Ah, ha, so that’s how they explain these things! Just give the rocks a dose of unobservable time and you’ve cleared up all your problems with folded rocks.  No one can possibly prove them wrong for the next 10,000,000 years or so!

Exposed rock layers in Iran as seen from the International Space Station

Exposed rock layers in Iran as seen from the International Space Station (for scale, that dark S shape is a lake)

Now for reason #5 (which was rather hard to find on the non-Creationist web, so listen close).  Rocks can bend rather than break when they are… full of water.  Now, when would we have had a lot of water-soaked rocks being pushed together and forced up?  I ran into an Old Earth Creationist site that said this idea of folded rocks being proof of the flood is nonsense because of the other ways to get them slowly.  They mentioned an unnamed chemical “solution” that would make rocks more bendable, but the only chemical I can find that does this is water!

Well, it looks like we’re back to what Answers in Genesis and the rest have been saying for years.  Water and soft, young rocks can fold.  Old rocks folding over millions of years?  That takes as much faith as it does to believe what Noah recorded.

Which removes the mountains, and they know not: which overturns them in His anger. Job 9:5

Behold, He withholds the waters, and they dry up: also He sends them out, and they overturn the earth.  Job 12:15

He puts forth His hand upon the rock; He overturns the mountains by the roots.”  Job 28:9

These are the main verses talked about in ICR’s Great Turnovers! article.

Don’t miss my Quotes for the Day!

Answers in Genesis: Rock Layers Folded not FracturedCreation Ministries International: Should atheists be free to teach what they believe?; and Folding Solid Rocks  This one is great with an account of a tree fossil upright through folded layers!

Institute for Creation Research: technical PDF of Tight Fold and Clastic Dikes.  If you take a minute to read the “abstract” you will see that Uniformitarians must believe that sandstone remained soft for millions of years before being bent.

Our “Backwards” Eyes

CS4K-Brown-eye

One of the reasons Evolutionists tell us that there ISN’T a Creator (and if there is, it’s really stupid) is what they call “imperfect design.”  They claim that if something doesn’t work as well as another design (that they come up with) would, it is proof that everything just happened by chance.  Our eyes are favorite ‘examples’ of these poorly formed parts.

SVG version of Image:Evolution_eye.png with ca...

[Wikipedia] “Vertebrates and octopuses developed the camera eye independently. In the vertebrate version the nerve fibers pass in front of the retina, and there is a blind spot where the nerves pass through the retina. In the vertebrate example, 4 represents the blind spot, which is notably absent from the octopus eye. In vertebrates, 1 represents the retina and 2 is the nerve fibers, including the optic nerve (3), whereas in the octopus eye, 1 and 2 represent the nerve fibers and retina respectively”

Here’s what Frank Zindler, interim president of the American Atheists said about our eyes, “As an organ developed via the opportunistic twists and turns of evolutionary processes, the human eye is explainable. As an organ designed and created by an infinitely wise deity, the human eye is inexcusable. For unlike the invertebrate eyes …, the human eye is constructed upon the foundation of an almost incredible error: The retina has been put together backwards!”

Of course, he’s not likely to change his mind no matter how many proofs you show him of the exquisite design of our eyes.  As always, it comes back to a person’s worldview.  But if you want to read all the things we could point out to show how foolish such thinking is, you could have a look at this ICR article.  “An evaluation of this argument reveals it is not only naive, but grossly erroneous…. Research by ophthalmologists has clearly shown why the human retina must employ what is called the “inverted” design.”  Turns out our rods and cones would die without this “backwards” design.

It’s interesting to compare our eyes to today’s best cameras. Engineers have been working for over 100 years to develop the most effective photographic capabilities possible. Not only are our eyes designed to focus on what matters most to us, they also don’t work alone. Our brain does all kinds of processing to help us understand what we are seeing.

Here’s what a photographer’s article comparing the two forms of seeing has to say:

A quick glance by our eyes might be a fairer comparison, but ultimately the uniqueness of our visual system is unavoidable because: What we really see is our mind’s reconstruction of objects based on input provided by the eyes — not the actual light received by our eyes.

 

A couple of weeks ago my kids were having fun finding out about their Blind Spots. First, we looked at a coloring book from the eye doctor with a special page to focus on in order to locate where the dot disappears. Then, my 5-year-old asked for a video to learn about why we have blind spots in the first place. It only took a minute on YouTube to locate a nice one!

This is just a guy with a white board, but it kept my kids’ attention (mostly):

 

(you’ll notice that he comments on our “backwards” eyes)

and the follow up video on:

I especially enjoyed the second video because now I know why the sky is blue!!!

I will praise thee; for I am fearfully [awesomely] and wonderfully [famously] made: marvellous are thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well. Psalm 139:14

To find out the truth about how smart our Designer God is see Velcro, Technology and the Designer

Recommended Resources: Persuaded by the Evidence

With the help of family and friends, I’ve been collecting Creation resources to check out and sort based on importance for you. This is one I’ve been wanted to share most. It’s going in the top-tier spot, aka “your family needs this!

Why? Because Persuaded by the evidence is all about people. It has enough eye-crossing science-speak for me to hold off giving my kids until they’re about 13 or so, but that’s just part of the focus. This book is about how these scientists and others came to dedicate their lives to Jesus and recognize Him as the Creator God. Which means a lot of people who don’t care much about science will connect to this book.

Being a lady, I found this book much better than a romance story. You have the same tension wondering how they will find their Savior: What did it take? What held them back? How did God break through to them in the end? What most attracted them to Jesus? And the best part is, I have the same Lord and Savior! Ahhh, the wonder of it! 🙂

So, for girls, this is especially good. For guys: well, it’s all written by guys, so there’s nothing mushy about it.

Teen Book GroupFor young people, It addresses a lot of the questions and doubts they experience now, or will when college starts. A few stories were of men who stayed firm about the Bible their whole lives, but the rest came out of the Evolutionary worldview.

For parents, some tell how they strayed from the Bible’s account and came back later; which is particularly important as their stories can serve as warning for us to avoid the same mistakes.

Some had never been exposed to anything but Evolution. Some became Jesus’ followers first and then struggled with the Bible’s claims about origins. A few accounts are from the early 20th Century when very little Creationist material was available. Their stories are all over the map in every way.

Questions?

Large parts of this book are filled with the science leading them to doubt the Evolutionary storyline and turning them to the claims of the Creator God. The subjects range from “why are there still continents if the world is as old as claimed?” to “how can we know right from wrong if everything is random?” Lots of people saw the impossibility of Evolutionary changes producing the order and complexity we see in living creatures.

The last section of the book is a treasure in itself. It is accounts of some founders of the modern Creationist movement. Did you know Dr. Henry M. Morris rose on the shoulders of other outspoken men of God and science? Dr. Duane T. Gish, Dr. Gary E. Parker (who has a particularly poignant story), and Dr. Andrew Snelling are all in here. Morris, Gish, and Snelling are names you can’t avoid in our field. How delightful to know their stories of God leading and preparing them for the places they fill!

I recommend this book for every home which has teenagers or older living in it (yes, that means you, parents). 🙂

If you appreciate what I do, please use my affiliate link to purchase this from Answers in Genesis. Thanks much!

In the same way, my words leave my mouth,
    and they don’t come back without results.
My words make the things happen that I want to happen.
    They succeed in doing what I send them to do. Isaiah 55:11

 

The Institute for Creation Research has another review to check out as well.

Dracorex: A Dragon the Scientists will admit to!

Dracorex at the Indianapolis Children's Museum

Dracorex at the Indianapolis Children’s Museum

[First published Aug. 2012] The other week I was watching a video of Eric Hovind and Paul Taylor from Creation Today visiting the Indianapolis Children’s Museum. Right near the end I saw something that blew my mind. At first I thought it was some kind of joke or mythology-as-science prank from the Museum.

Dracorex - 01

Dracorex

They had a dragon’s skeleton on display in the dinosaur department!  How could they allow such a thing in a Museum that claims these creatures died out millions of years ago? Well, they haven’t dropped the millions of years idea, but they did call this thing Dracorex Hogwartsia the “Dragon King from Hogwarts”.

First I’ll give you the statistics I found on this very real, dead animal.  Back in 2003 three friends were out digging in the South Dakota section of the famous Hell Creek formation when one of them spotted a large skull sticking out a bit.  After they dug it up, still almost covered in rock, they decided to donate it. One guy’s daughter had enjoyed the Indianapolis Children’s Museum, so they sent it there.

English: Dragon head on top of a grille, collé...

Dragon head, France

The Museum was a great place to give it to because they do fossil cleaning and other restoration work right on site where kids can watch the scientists at work.  At first the Museum’s staff wasn’t too excited about their new assignment.  They even figured the amateur fossil hounds might be wasting their time with cow bones!  But it wasn’t long before they realized they had a special find on their hands.

The first example of any animal we hadn’t yet written up in modern science gets a specific name.  It is known as the “Holotype.”  This means even if we find better, more complete, or more typical examples, the first one will always be special.  This skull of Dracorex is the holotype for its kind.

The ICM example was found with only most of the skull (and one of its lower teeth) along with 4 vertebrae from near but not right next to the skull. You wouldn’t realize that’s all we have from the display at the Museum, because they have recreated a whole skeleton.

Scientists often do this because it’s very rare to find anything like a complete set of bones together.  So they use their imaginations and common sense based on other fossils and known animal types. I don’t really mind, it just would have been really cool if they could have found wings for this thing!  No, I don’t really believe in four legged dinosaurs with shoulder wings, too, but the idea is fun and makes as much sense as some of the ideas scientists come up with (like feathered dinosaurs).

Sketch of a pachycephalosaur of uncertain syst...

Sketch of a pachycephalosaur

Some scientists are convinced that this particular animal was just a young pachycephalosaur that hadn’t grown its dome yet.   But the “oldest” (which actually means farthest down) we’ve found already had domes.  So, maybe Evolution had decided to drop the dome because it wasn’t useful any more?

How ’bout, all these guys were alive together and got buried in a major watery catastrophe?  I bet that’s much less confusing than the pretzels they have to force their brains into!

Turns out Draco with its vertebrae gives us the best evidence yet that any of these dinosaurs liked to violently bang into each other.  At the same time they can tell the bones were just about fused like a grownup’s, so there goes the young pachycephalosaur idea!

Psalm 91:13  Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.

Isaiah 51:9  Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?

For more info check out Creation International Ministries: Dracorex—the dinosaur that looks like a dragon

I had a lot of fun finding artistic representations of similar creatures to add to this post.  These pictures are from around the world and the art dates back sometimes hundreds of years.

Koocheekoo

Detail of dragon ring, Eze, France

Schwarz Weiss

Fresco of St. George with the dragon inside the Aarhus Cathedral

Three or four toe dragon at a former private garden in Shanghai, China

Three or four toe dragon at a former private garden in Shanghai, China

Mathiasrex

Duchy of Czersk coat of arms

Lara Eakins

Not So Old Dragon!

NASA image via WikiCommons

The Miller Urey Experiment: Proof for What?

 Definition of Abiogenesis: the supposed spontaneous origination of living organisms directly from lifeless matter—called also spontaneous generation

NASA image via WikiCommons

Stanley Miller

Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur

Remember learning about Louis Pasteur? Just before his time, many people believed maggots popped into life wherever meat was left out. They didn’t understand the connection between them and flies. They still thought wine fermented on its own, never thinking about yeast.

Belief in life just popping into existence without a parent is called Spontaneous Generation. Back before Jesus’ day, the Greeks and Romans already believed in it. It has never been observed and we now know it can’t happen.

But many scientists still believe it did happen, at least once, somewhere in the universe!

Scientists know people won’t take them seriously talking about spontaneous generation, so they changed the name of their belief. Now they prefer to call it “abiogenesis” which means non-life beginning.

Is abiogenesis really different? No. Which is why you don’t have kids’ books describing it. Instead you read about life after it already existed.

Miller Urey Experiment

Sometimes, books will talk about an experiment scientists did back in the 1953. They say it proved you can get the building blocks for life when things are just right.

equipment for a Miller-Urey type experiment

equipment for a Miller-Urey type experiment

That’s not really true. To get the results they were hoping for, the scientists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey carefully controlled everything:

  •  The amount of light was kept low
  • The temperature was kept just right
  • The ingredients in the experiment were carefully purified
  • No one today thinks they used the right ingredients
  • Most of the chemicals formed were deadly

After all this, they did get some amino acids (what proteins are built from).

Why is the most famous experiment for abiogenesis 60 years old? So many things couldn’t work in the real world, some scientists have switched to just using computers in “virtual laboratories”.

Others have decided life didn’t start on earth and are looking to outer space for answers. In the past few years, scientists have started searching meteorites for the building blocks of life. They are even finding some real extra-terrestrial amino acids. But they don’t like to point out one important thing

Just because you have an amino acid, doesn’t mean you can start new life

Many amino acids aren’t used by any life forms on earth. We know all of those can’t help explain abiogenesis. Even with the right kinds your work isn’t done.

Getting amino acids to combine themselves into something like a protein is a huge task. In the real world, there are a lot of things which would stop amino acids from building anything fancier.

Chirality with hands and two enantiomers of a ...

Chirality with hands and two enantiomers of a generic amino acid.

Even if they did, everything alive uses only half the amino acids produced by non-living reactions. Here’s how it works: amino acids are kind of like your hands; they have all the same parts but are mirror images. Cells almost only use the “left-handed” ones. But, there is always an even mixture of both outside of cells.

Any protein trying to form wouldn’t be able to separate out all the “right-handed” acids and couldn’t form properly. Even if one could somehow form, just one protein doesn’t come close to what you need for a “simple” cell.

The truth is, if you had a perfect environment with everything a cell needs to survive in just the right amounts…

You still couldn’t bring it to life

A dead body isn’t going to come back to life, even with all the parts in place, once the life is gone.

Only life can create life.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Genesis 2:7

They Aren’t About to Give Up, Though:

2008: Biologists Attempt to Create New Forms of Life (AiG discussion)

2009: RNA “precursors” created in the lab (ICR discussion)

2010: “synthetic life form” created (CMI discussion)

2011: Still studying the Miller Urey experiment (ICR Discussion)

2014: Formation of life’s building blocks recreated in lab (New Scientist- all the same problems are left as with the Miller-Urey experiment except for more acceptable ingredients)

For more, check out:

Creation Research.net Origin of Life:

“I have spent the better part of my life learning how/why chemicals react (I am a PhD synthetic chemist). Our best efforts under carefully controlled conditions can only create moderately complex chemicals. Our experience shows that manufacturing complex bio-compounds requires an intelligent creator scientist and we can only make the simpler molecules.” Ed Neeland

Bible Science Guy: Evidence for God – Design Convinces Scientists 7

Institute for Creation Research: Origin of Life Research Still Dead

Institute for Creation Research: Evolution Hopes You Don’t Know Chemistry: The Problem with Chirality

Creation Ministries International: Detailed Criticisms of the RNA World Hypothesis

Answers in Genesis: Why the Miller-Urey Research Argues Against Abiogenesis

Sumerian Cylinder Seal, Flickr, Steve Harris

God Says Earth Spins like a…. Seal?

No, not the animal, but a seal to press into clay. Check it out:

Sumerian Cylinder Seal, Flickr, Steve Harris

Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days; and caused the dayspring to know his place;
That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?
It is turned as clay to the seal; and they stand as a garment. Job 38:12-14

If you read these verses in other versions, you’ll read something quite different. They say the earth was changed like clay under a seal. But King James’ translators tried to be super honest with the Hebrew even if something seemed odd. They just translated each word into English as best they could and left us to puzzle why God would say things the way he did.

Let’s see what we can solve using modern archaeology:

Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals:

Ancient Mesopotamians.com says: Cylinder seals, small stone cylinders covered with a design were the oldest form of art in Mesopotamia. Cylinder seals were used as ownership stamps for the people. They were also used as jewellery or magical amulets. Cylinder seals were related with the cuneiform system of writing because they were used to authenticate cuneiform documents.

These seals differ in sizes, designs and shapes. It was from the 3rd millennium BC that they began to be prevalent. They were used extensively by the government officials in various occasions such as sealing the closure of the door of a storeroom, confirmation of receipt etc. Cylinders were used as signatures in contracts and other documents.

Cool, huh?

How does this fit our verses? Verses 12 and 13 are easy enough; God is talking about the morning and how bad guys can’t hide once the sun comes up. Then He says, “It is turned as clay to the seal”. What is “it”? Not the earth, but the morning. The morning is compared to clay getting stamped by one of these cylinder seals.

“Morning” isn’t a thing like the sun or moon. It’s the name we have for the time of day when sunlight first starts shining onto us. When we put verse 14 together, it sure looks like God is talking about the atmosphere. “And they stand as a garment makes a lot of sense when you think of how the air wraps around the earth like a skin or clothes.

But what could God be talking about with “it” being turned or pressed like clay in one of those seals? I decided to check around to see if the atmosphere changes shape when morning comes. Here’s what NASA has to say about it:

Since air is gaseous, it is compressible. This means that the air pressure nearer the surface of the Earth is greater than the air pressure in the stratosphere. . . .

The page goes on and on about how temperature affects an airplane’s flying power. Air pressure also messes with the instruments telling pilots how high they are above sea level. Temperature gets higher every morning.

It isn’t easy to find out if the whole atmosphere changes shape; most people just want to talk about its “average height”. But, I kept looking and check out what I found:

Federation of American Scientists: Understanding the Atmosphere: The tropopause is a thin zone of transition between the troposphere [where we live] and the stratosphere. Obviously, the tropopause height varies directly with the troposphere thickness and depends largely on geographical location, season, and other factors.

Could the tropopause change height in the morning? I found a super eye-crossing paper saying, yes it does. About an hour after sunrise, the height starts changing. This study didn’t come out until the end of 2008AD, but God told us it happened 1,000s of years ago.

Once more we see God knows what He’s talking about. Our job is to remember how smart He is and watch for ways to check it out.

BTW, there’s one cylinder scroll creationists find extra interesting. You can read more about it on Creation Ministries International: Mesopotamian monsters in Paris

Long necked creature seal, Louvre, wikimedia

“Lions”?!!! Are you sure?

Van Gogh's Starry Night with Col. 1:14-16 Pasteur's Swan Flask

Louis Pasteur’s Swan Flask Experiments

Illustration of Pasteur's swan neck flask experimentSome time ago, I wrote about how Evolutionists still believe in spontaneous generation, just giving it a new name: Abiogenesis. That post mentioned Pasteur a bit and included a picture of one of his experiments using “swan flasks”. Ever since then, I’ve had a trickle of people searching for info about Pasteur’s flasks.

Eventually, I got so curious I did some searching of my own. Here’s what I found:

Louis Pasteur photo

Pasteur’s photo portrait by Nadar

Darwin’s Origin of Species book retelling the ancient idea of biological evolution was first printed in 1859. From the beginning, many people recognized what believing in life creating itself would do to Christianity and human equality, including Louis Pasteur.

Just a few years before, Pasteur had begun studying how microbes (tiny living creatures like bacteria and yeast) were the cause of food spoilage. He was in a perfect place to understand what Darwin was claiming and the scientific truth about life. He was soon busy showing how impossible the #1 necessary step of Evolution was: getting life to start in the first place.

Since the time of the ancient Greeks, people had believed everything from flies to mice to eels just popped into being every day. Slowly, scientists had shown all of them actually had parents.

But then we developed microscopes and started seeing all kind of miniature living things that Pasteur first called microbes. Where did they come from?

Others had tried to show whether microbes just came to life whenever things were right. Some reported that droplets of ocean water reenacted what they believed had been happening since the dawn of time: life springing into being all by itself. But no one really knew how these invisible things worked and they made mistakes like letting air in or not heating things enough to kill everything.

We all understand what Pasteur was the first to figure out: you don’t have to touch something dirty to get germs on you. Bacteria and viruses float around in the air ready to settle into a pleasant environment like your lungs and nose.

Pasteur proved this when he managed to catch some microbes from the air in cotton. He cultured the cotton and it grew the same kinds of microbes as usual. Now it was time to see if stopping those airborne germs stopped life from starting in a flask.

Swan Flask used by Pasteur

Here’s how Pasteur did it:

  • First he made flasks with bent, “swan”, necks. This was to trap all the organisms in the air before they could get through
  • He filled the bottom of the flask with some broth microbes liked to grow in
  • Then he boiled it to kill anything already there
  • While it was still hot, he melted the glass at the tip of the neck to keep microbes from getting in

Nothing grew in the broth

  • Even when the sealed end was broken off, the swan neck did its job (in fact, it’s still doing it’s job today almost 150 years later!)

Some people believed in a “vital ingredient” in air, so Pasteur broke off the tip of the glass neck to let air flow through. But the swan neck shape would catch anything heavier than gas. No microbes could float through.

Finally, Pasteur tipped the flask to expose the broth to the trapped microbes

  • sure enough, it started to culture just like usual

Artwork of Meteorite falling: WikiCommonsAs you know, Pasteur’s experiments were undeniable; what he discovered was true. To this day, evolutionists don’t like to talk about spontaneous generation; most books skip right over it to the “first cells”. The most recent experiment “proving” you could get life to start from non-life is over 60 years old. Some scientists have even turned to asteroids to give them enough time for the impossible to happen.

But, nature serves its Master whether people are willing to worship Him or not.

Let God be true, but every man a liar; as it is written, That you might be justified in your sayings, and might overcome when you are judged. Romans 3:4

Want to see Pasteur’s original flasks keeping germs out? Have a look at the bottom of this page by the Pasteur Institute

You can do Louis Pasteur’s experiment for yourself with the right supplies. This article on how to do it at Biology Junction is worth the read even if you don’t have a lab.

There’s also an interesting 7 minute video about the Swan Flask Experiment at the Education Portal.

Did you notice how much these pages sound like creationists? The people who believed in spontaneous generation are rightly seen as ignorant of reality.

I found a lot of information for this post in the Answers Research Journal article by Alan L. Gillen and Frank J. Sherwin III: Louis Pasteur’s Views on Creation, Evolution, and the Genesis of Germs

Want to see Pasteur’s thoughts on evolution and the origin of life for yourself? Check out this speech he gave in 1864.

Honeybee on Purple Flower: USDA

Bees: Designer’s Showcase, Evolutionary Puzzle

Worker beesLast week, my dad gave me a article on the specialized members of the honey bee hive. Although I’ve studied some about these cool critters, I hadn’t realized just how many different roles the bees have to keep their hive functioning, so I thought it would be fun to pass it on to you.

We all know the basic subdivisions of jobs in a honey bee hive:

  • The Queen
  • The Workers
  • The Drones

But did you know just how many specializations the workers have? Throughout their lives worker bees have special jobs around the hive before they head out to collect the things the colony needs. They start out with housecleaning (sound familiar?), then move on to nursemaid, construction worker, grocer, undertaker, and guard. Only after spending about half their lifetime doing these inside jobs do they begin to venture out as foragers.

The most interesting job to me is the undertaker. I’m glad my family doesn’t need special people just to carry away our dead all the time! But it is a gift of God that these creatures are careful to protect their homes from germs and diseases that they have no way of knowing even exist.

Propolis in beehives Português: Própolis em co...

Propolis in beehives

Another help that God has given for times when the bees can’t remove something is Propolis. Pine trees and some other trees put out a sticky ooze called resin that just ‘happens’ to be antimicrobial [kills germs].  Bees and some ants collect this goo to protect themselves from getting sick. The bees mix the resin with their own wax to make the Propolis. Then, when something too heavy gets stuck in their hive (like a mouse that they sting to death), they coat it all over with Propolis and they don’t have to worry about the stink or illness! Reminds me a bit of what oysters do.

Check out some of these Fun Facts about Honey Bees:

 

  • Eating honey can help you [be] smarter! It is the only food to contain ‘pinocembrin’ that is an antioxidant that improves brain function
  • Many plants rely on insects like bees in order to be pollinated; which is why they provide nectar to say thanks

 

The Bible mentions honey 56 times. Maybe that’s because God knows how good this sweet stuff is for us.

Do you think plants are really smart enough to know they need the bees and invent a drink to “say thanks”? Considering they don’t even have a brain, it seems far more likely they were given the ability to make nectar by a very smart God who made them and the bees!

Honeybee on Purple Flower: USDA

When I started to research bees today, I plugged “bees + evolution” into my search engine. As I just mentioned, scientists find a number of things “surprising” about bees. They show up too early in the fossil record. They aren’t as dependent on the orchids that need them desperately as they should be. They can’t figure out why the other bees help the queen when it doesn’t help the workers.

Turns out bees were another creature that Darwin was interested in over a hundred years ago. Because he couldn’t find a bunch of fossil bees (we now have some preserved in amber, but they’re still bees!), Darwin made a story showing how they progress from simple to complex using bees that were all alive in the 1800s!

You’d think by now they would have all the answers with that much attention on how bees live.

But I have said unto you, Ye shall inherit their land, and I will give it unto you to possess it, a land that floweth with milk and honey: I am the LORD your God, which have separated you from other people.  Leviticus 20:24

He should have fed them also with the finest of the wheat: and with honey out of the rock should I have satisfied thee. Psalm 81:16

For more:

Creation Revolution Articles 4 Kids: Bees: A Honey of a Problem for Evolution

Video:Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution: Melipona Bee Defies Evolution

Answers in Genesis: Honeybees Navigate with a Map of Polarized Light

ICR: Honey Bee Orphan Genes Sting Evolution

Water cycle drawing, WikiCommons

Science in the Bible: The Water Cycle

First Published June, 2012; things haven’t changed any since then!

Water cycle drawing, WikiCommons

Today I want to mention how knowledgeable the ancient writers of the Bible were about the water cycle. I found a long webpage from UNESCO that talks about what most people long ago thought of the Water Cycle:

“The Greeks therefore described the water cycle backwards, arguing that since the level of the seas remained constant despite all the rivers flowing into it, the water must penetrate the earth’s depths and feed the underground springs. Evaporation and Precipitation were ignored.”

Ancient Egyptians couldn’t figure out how the Nile flooded annually even though it never rained during that time of year. The average Egyptian thought that the river was just a sort of back flow from the Mediterranean Sea. You’d think they would have wondered why the river water wasn’t salty!

The Chinese knew that rain was the source of the water in their rivers and even had a flood warning system using horseback messengers that could travel faster than the rising waters! But there is no evidence that they understood where the rain came from in the first place. They even invented a Rain Dragon myth to explain what caused it.

But is this the kind of confused tale that the Bible presents for us about the water cycle?  Have a look at these verses:

All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again. Ecclesiastes 1:7

If the clouds be full of rain, they empty themselves upon the earth: Ecclesiastes 11:3a

He causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; he makes lightnings for the rain; he brings the wind out of his treasuries. English: LightningPsalm 135:7

The Psalms verse is especially interesting because it shows the connection between lightning and rainfall. Even what is known as Dry Lightning has rain, it just never reaches the ground! I found out that there is something called a Rain Gush whenever lightning occurs. If there is even lightning very close to you, you might notice it starts to rain extra hard a few seconds later. This all has to do with the electricity in water and is something we still don’t completely understand, but the Creator does!

Mist on Lake Ontario

He that calls for the waters of the sea, and pours them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name. Amos 9:6b

When he utters his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens, and he causes the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; he makes lightnings with rain, and brings forth the wind out of his treasures. Jeremiah 10:13

These last three verses show a clear understanding of evaporation, unlike what these other cultures were thinking!

Beginning with Leonardo Da Vinci in the late 1400s, and Bernard Palissy 100 years later, modern scientists pieced together how the water cycle works. Finally in the 1600s, two Frenchmen, Pierre Perrault and Edmé Mariotte, showed that there was enough water from evaporation and rain to explain how water reached the land and then flowed back to the sea.

Nowadays, knowledge of the water cycle is so common that we all learn about it in our first school years.

Praise be to our great God who formed the earth so carefully and thoughtfully!

For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the LORD.
For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.
For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater:
So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: Isaiah 55:8-11

Continued: God’s Miracle: the Clouds