Antarctic Ice

The Ice Age: Part 2

Antarctic Ice

Continued from The Ice Age: Part 1

Old-Earth Uniformitarians know there has been at least one Ice Age, but they need there to be more than just one to fit their long ages and constant states.  I’ve seen people claiming anywhere from four Ice Ages to eleven with five being the most popular. But the assumption they have to make is that the glaciers and ice sheets melted away completely (with the climate becoming tropical in between) before expanding and spreading over the world again.

cs4k-doubtfulsound-fjordConveniently for those who want there to be a number of Ice Ages, the proof for these times happening over and over for millions of years gets rubbed away by the newest set of glaciers. The last sentence of Wikipedia’s article on Major Ice Ages says, “The scouring action of each glaciation tends to remove most of the evidence of prior ice sheets almost completely, except in regions where the later sheet does not achieve full coverage.”  Yet, they want us to believe their millions of years timeline!

But the problem of figuring out how many ice ages there actually were is minor compared to the problem these scientists have with how a gigantic ice sheet could form in the first place. Have a look at this quote from the book Earth’s Climate History by Anton Uriante:

cs4k-snowdrifts-and-stream“One question that has yet to be answered is that of where the moisture required to form such an enormous volume of ice so quickly in the continental sheets (especially the Laurentide one) actually came from. Up until recently, the most widely accepted theory has been that the moisture came from the North Atlantic. For this to have occurred, the surface of the ocean must have remained warm for a fairly long period of time, thanks to the ongoing influence of the Gulf Stream.

However, in order for the huge Laurentide ice sheet to have formed, snow storms much greater and more frequent than those which occur today in Québec and the north-eastern United States would have been required. These snow storms, which must have been ten times as intense as modern-day ones, would have been associated with extremely active fronts generated by the contrast between the polar masses of cold air from the American continent and the warm, moisture-laden air masses which formed over the Atlantic Ocean “

You might want to read that twice. He says that for there to be enough snow to form the ice sheets that we know did form, you have to have a warm ocean and huge storms (10x the strength of the ones we have now). In his next paragraph the author talks about how such a warm ocean doesn’t fit their models and they guess that the evaporated water from the tropical ocean somehow blew north to fall as snow and form these ice sheets. This is a real problem for Uniformitarian scientists, since whatever is cooling the air enough to keep the snow from melting would also cool the water so it wouldn’t evaporate enough to make all that snow.

Do we as Young Earth Catastrophist Scientists have this problem? Does the Bible hold any clues about the Ice Age? Well, let’s think this through from the records left for us from this time. We know there was a beautiful, healthy world before the Flood of Noah’s day. This world was destroyed by water (II Peter 3:6) coming from rain and the fountains of the Great Deep (Genesis 7:11; 8:2).

We’ve got a big clue hidden in the Psalms:

Volcano by the WaterIf you look up the special word the Bible uses for Noah’s Flood [Strong’s # 3999: maw-buhl], you will find that it is only used to talk about the Flood of Noah’s day in the first chapters of Genesis and in one other place, Psalm 29:10. You get some really cool pictures of what the Flood was like by looking carefully at this Psalm. I especially love how David keeps talking about “the Voice of the LORD” which echoes Genesis 1 and John 1.

The verse for today is verse 7, “The voice of the LORD divideth the flames of fire.” The word “divideth” means to dig out. Now, what kind of fire would God be digging out of the ground during the Great Flood?  How about volcanoes!

So, we know there were volcanoes active during the Flood year from the Bible, and you can see from the volcanoes around the world that there was a lot of really big eruptions after the water stopped eroding things away. What do these volcanoes do to the climate of our world?

First, let’s look at the water cycle. For water to get into the sky to fall as snow, you first have to haveheat! If the whole world were thoroughly cool, you wouldn’t have enough evaporation to form the great ice sheets of the Ice Age.

The Flood gave earth a double dose of hot water

Mid-Atlantic RidgeRemember those fountains of the great deep? All that water was buried down not too far from where the rocks are so hot they are liquefied. When the water burst out, the oceans had a huge dose of heat added to them. Not so great for the fish, but awesome at helping water to evaporate and fill the clouds with water.

Also, if there were a whole bunch of underwater (and above water) volcanoes going off (and forming the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands of the Pacific), you would have even more really warm water. You would also have unusually cool air. This easily makes the world just right for enormous snow storms piling up snow that didn’t have a chance to melt during the Summer, at least not until everything calmed down, which probably took hundreds of years.

The usual time frame I find from Young-Earth Catastrophic Scientists is that the Ice Age took about 500 years to ice over the most and another 200 years to melt back to more or less what we see left around the world today.

BTW This tells you how fast Noah’s children had built more boats and went exploring to make the original Piri Reis Map!!

The ocean levels were also much lower with so much water trapped on the continents. To see some of the signs we find of this happening read my post on Humans once lived Underwater?

Elihu said this about God: Listen closely to the thunder of His voice, and the rumbling that goes out from His mouth. Under the whole heaven He lets it loose, and His lightning to the ends of the earth. After it, a voice roars; He thunders with His majestic voice, and He does not restrain the lightnings when His voice is heard. God thunders with His voice wondrously, doing great things which we cannot comprehend. For to the snow He says, ‘Fall on the earth,’ and to the downpour and the rain, ‘Be strong.’ He seals the hand of every man, that all men may know His work. Then the beast goes into its lair and remains in its den.

Out of the south comes the storm, and out of the north the cold. From the breath of God ice is made, and the expanse of the waters is frozen. Also with moisture He loads the thick cloud; He disperses the cloud of His lightning. It changes direction, turning around by His guidance, that it may do whatever He commands it on the face of the inhabited earth. Job 37:2-12 NASB

PS What does this make you think about Climate Change today?

More articles to read:

A whole slew of articles from Answers in Genesis

ICR How Soon After the Flood Did the Earth Return to Equilibrium?

ICR The Ice Age: Causes and Consequences

ICR Ice Age Ended Rapidly

 

Turnagain Arm, Anchorage, AK: Photo Credit Frank K.

Was There Really an Ice Age?

Turnagain Arm, Anchorage, AK: Photo Credit Frank K.

When I had just turned 7, my family and I drove from Michigan up the Al-Can (it wasn’t paved yet, so it didn’t deserve the respectful name “the Alaska-Canada Highway) to begin a new life in Anchorage, AK. In my opinion, there isn’t a better place to grow up. We were surrounded by mountains, bordered the second-largest-tide inlet of ocean, and it was just a couple minutes’ drive to get to a glacier!

The whole world up there bears the marks of the great glaciers that once filled in and carved out all the valleys. When did the glaciers do this, and why aren’t they still there anymore?

Was there really an Ice Age?

If it happened, what was this period of earth’s history like? What would cause an ice age? Can we tell how long ago it happened? Let’s explore these questions and what the Bible has to say about it all.

Back in the late 1700s evolutionary scientists had developed the idea that the earth formed from volcanoes and therefore had been cooling down slowly ever since. This idea, called Plutonism is still the most popular non-special-creation model today. But in the 1830s evidence and memories of a time when glaciers covered much of the earth started showing up more and more. It wasn’t until the 1870s that the amount of proof led evolutionary scientists to acknowledge that there had been ice over much of the world in the past.

I ran into a very interesting page from Ice Age skeptics who point out that a lot of the geology that we find around the world can’t be explained by a bunch of glaciers over millions of years. But that doesn’t tell us an Ice Age (following a Great Flood) didn’t really happen.

Here’s what we see around the world that makes us believe that in the recent geological past a lot more of the world was covered with glaciers than right now. There are still (even with people burning fossil fuels) a lot of glaciers around the world and we can study what happens as they ooze down mountains, expanding and retreating. The National Snow and Ice Data Center, explains a lot of what we see glaciers doing in the present and the effects left behind when a glacier has been somewhere.

Icebergs are breaking off glaciers at Cape Yor...

Icebergs are breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland. The picture was taken from a helicopter.

Here’s a short page from Scandinavia explaining the formations an average glacier leaves behind when it melts with a coded picture. I really liked the mention of the drainage notches along the ridge line. It would be fun to keep an eye out for them when you see a glacial landscape

The University of Wisconsin has a great set of pictures showing the formations that glaciers carve out.  Just click on one of the types listed on the left to see lots more pictures.

Some of our most spectacular landscapes we have around the world were carved out by glaciers. The Matterhorn, Yosemite, The Great Lakes, New York’s Finger Lakes, the outlines of Ireland, England and Scandinavia were all carved out by glaciers.

A fun Good Search is to look at photos taken in the Karakoram Range to the west of the Himalayas.

So we can tell where glaciers used to be by recognizing these formations around the world

Ice age Earth at glacial maximum. Based on:

Ice age Earth at glacial maximum. Based on: “Ice age terrestrial carbon changes revisited” by Thomas J. Crowley

We can even see where ice sheets flowed over what is now ocean. This page shows the ice river that ran between Scotland and Scandinavia, scroll to the bottom of the page to see the ocean floor picture.

Find out what Creation Scientists have to say about the Ice Age in Part 2.

God asked Job: Who hath divided a watercourse for the overflowing of waters, or a way for the lightning of thunder;  To cause it to rain on the earth, where no man is; on the wilderness, wherein there is no man;  To satisfy the desolate and waste ground; and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth?  Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?  Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?  The waters are hid as with a stone, and the face of the deep is frozen. Job 28:25-30

For more check out:

United Nations Environment Programme: Glacial Periods and the Evolution of  Modern-day Deserts

Beringia strait, Roblespepe, WikiCommons

Submerged Ice Age Ruins are Everywhere!

Beringia strait, Roblespepe, WikiCommons

Land Bridge from Asia to North America during the Ice Age

 

If you remember from the Ice Age posts, we figure it took about 500 years for the ice sheets to be the biggest they got before melting. When all that water was trapped on top of the continents, it wasn’t filling up the ocean.

All scientists figure that the water levels were up to 394 feet (120 meters) lower at the peak of the Ice Age before slowly rising to the level we see today. As we know, people were busy spreading all over the planet during this time, so it makes sense that they would leave behind submerged ruins for us to find in the shallow seas around the world.

First have a look at this page on how there was once a land bridge between England and France.

Then have a look at some of the places we’ve found around the world:

Persian Gulf Oasis

Underwater Burial Cave in Mexico

Unesco Underwater Cultural Heritage. These aren’t all Ice Age remains, but a lot of them are!!

Human Construction under the Black Sea. Noah’s Flood Deniers love to say that the Flood story came from the catastrophic breach of the Mediterranean into the Black Sea basin. This didn’t happen until after the World Wide Flood of Noah’s day, but it probably did happen like they describe.

Red Sea Settlements

Beringia Land Bridge. Animated gif of its prog...

Possible Beringia Land Bridge. Animated gif of its progress from Ice Age to modern times.

Bimini Road of the coast of Cuba. If you read this page you’ll notice a common technique for keeping information about uncomfortable things from the mainstream of science: just don’t publish it!!! Then you can claim that no one really knows, it’s all just a conspiracy, etc.

And another article about the Cuban coast showing that there was a whole city. Have a look at this quote about why they won’t admit just what it all is: “We’d prefer to stay away from that subject. This is something of great potential scientific interest, but it must involve serious authorities on ancient civilizations.” They’d rather protect their jobs than publish the truth.

Washington State Ice Age Settlements

Florida Coast

Indian Coast

Underwater Pyramid Japan

Britain

Off the Coast of Israel

In the English Channel

Pavlopetri, Greece with more pictures and this page with more info

Well, that should keep you busy, and certainly shows that people got around!!

Here’s an article from a Young Earth Creationist about these places and more: Ice Age end about 1500BC and a MAP

So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. Genesis 11:8,9

Devils Tower, WikiCommons

Devils Tower: One Cool Inselberg, Part 2

Devils Tower, WikiCommons

Today we get to cover an Inselberg (see Part 1) that came from a hot (vs. mud) volcano!

I’ve never wanted to go see “Devils” Tower because of its name, but it turns out the man who interpreted the Native American name for it didn’t get it right and we should be calling it “Bears’ Lodge Tower.” So, next time I’m out west I’ll try to stop by between Mt. Rushmore and Yellowstone.

Devils Tower in the northwest corner of Wyoming is one of the most extraordinary of the basalt rock formations. But columns like this are not uncommon features around the world. Giant Crystals has some cool pictures and an interesting description of the puzzle these types of rocks in Europe set for early modern geologists. The Biblical Geology website tells us about another formation in Victoria, AU. Then, for a real treat have a look at these pictures from around the world.Giants Causeway showing hexegonal columns, WikiCommons

How did such giant columns get clumped together to tower over the landscape like they do? Hanksville Geology’s Page is short and to the point with nice drawing of the processes that probably formed Devils Tower.

Lava was being forced up toward the surface, found a narrow opening and squeezed up. As the lava cooled and shrank into basalt, it splintered into all those separate columns. The newly cooled basalt was much harder than the fresh Flood sedimentary rocks which got washed back toward the ocean leaving the basalt standing.

Devils Tower is just unusual in how tall it is and that it stands alone.

The page on Devils Tower I used points out that the Missouri Buttes [b-you-ts] nearby were formed at the same time. I’ve driven out west and there are places where basalt column layers run along the cliffs for mile after mile.

To see why, visit this page from ICR and look for the map (about 2/3 of the way down) of the lava flows that cover the American west. Those lines running through the map are state borders. You’re looking at about half the width of North America covered the light blue eruption!

Chasm Park with Flood Basalt Cliffs, WikiCommonsI found an article just on Devils Tower at ICR answering some questions I hadn’t even been asking yet. They start out talking about how the lava squeezed up, but then they deal with some of the objections Old Earth geologists have. They claim if these enormous lava flows had just happened a few thousand years ago, they still wouldn’t be cool. That tells you just how much lava there was, doesn’t it?

What the slow and gradual geologists forget is that this was during and right after the Flood. What do we use to cool our nuclear reactors with? Water. It is God’s natural coolant, and it was everywhere during the Flood. Then there was the Ice Age with all its snow, ice, and rain just afterwards.

Thank you, God, that the west isn’t still too hot to walk on!

As for the earth, out of it comes bread: and under it is turned up as it were fire. The stones of it are the place of sapphires: and it hath dust of gold. Job 28:5,6

Next time I’m going to take you through a government educational page on Devils Tower. 🙂

More info:

Creation.com: Devils Tower Explained

Wyoming Tourism: Devils Tower National Monument

Islamic Ark Illumination

The Whole World Remembers Noah’s Flood

Cover of

Cover via Amazon

This topic seemed good to cover since Master Books has put out a book on the same subject. Haven’t had a chance to look at it yet, but you can get an idea of the kinds of things it covers from my article I’m reposting:

A couple of years ago I ran into the book Eternity in Their Hearts by Don Richardson that discusses the memory many people groups have of the great Flood.  I had heard of the Babylonian myth of a cube-shaped boat and the gods landing on the sacrifice afterwards because they were so hungry.  That story in the Gilgamesh Epoch is often used to “show” that the Bible just borrowed and sanitized other cultures’ myths.  But like all the arguments non-believers use, this can cut both ways.

If the great Flood of Noah’s day actually happened, wouldn’t you expect his descendents to hold on to some memory of it?  If it was just a myth, why would people groups from all over the world reinvent the same false story?

This is one of the commonly known evidences of the truth of God’s Word that non-believers don’t want children to find out about.  They will talk about it among themselves, but Cosmos-forbid the little ones get the wrong idea! “Flood myths are told by probably the majority of human nations.” by Albert L. Kroeber in Anthropology from 1948.

Turns out the Babylonian story is just the “cube” on the tip of the iceberg.  I found an enormous page covering these stories.  I was going to tell you the total number of people groups Mark Isaak mentions, but when I saw how many more there were after counting to 100 I stopped!  Every part of the globe that people live in (so no stories from Antarctica!) has groups that remember some part of the Flood.  Mind-blowing and Awesome.

English: Illustration of the Black Sea deluge,...

Illustration of the Black Sea deluge, before and after

An explanation worldwide Flood doubters have for why people “invented” flood stories is the filling of the Black Sea.  I once accidentally bought a book that claimed this.  I didn’t keep it, so I don’t recall the title, but I did read it (here’s a page with a pop-up ad that makes the same case).  The author explained that as sea levels rose long ago (which they certainly did, at the end of the Ice Age) suddenly flooding the fertile valley that is now the Black Sea.  I’m sure this happened.  But does that explain why they tell flood stories in the Pacific Islands and the Americas?  It takes just as much faith to believe that all humans were living in the Black Sea basin 7,500 years ago and carried the story around the world as it does for me to believe God’s Word.

Let’s compare what we have recorded in the Bible with all the other stories.  This page from Northwest Creation Network does a good job of this.  On their chart you’ll see that the only thing that every story has in common is destruction by water.  They’re chart shows that only the Babylon- Gilgamesh epic has all the story parts that the Bible mentions.  However, when I looked up that story on Isaak’s page, it didn’t say anything about people being wicked (and therefore judged), just that there were too many of them!

Noah's ark

This is not the real ark!

Now, let’s look at the details the Bible gives compared to the other stories to see which fits reality better.  Any story (like the Gilgamesh epic) that has many gods landing on meat like flies doesn’t fit.  Neither does a boat shaped like a box.  The Chaldeans said the dimensions of width to height was 5 to 2, the Bible’s ratio is 5 to 3.  Not too bad.  The Lithuanians (along with a number of other groups) knew that the Flood came because of wickedness, but they said that people survived by riding in a nutshell.

I wanted to see what the Chinese story had.  It says that the flood lasted 22 years and didn’t quite cover the mountain tops.  Maybe that’s why they’re fond of living up so high.  The hero gets killed by the gods and after 3 years a dragon comes out of his cut open body. Yuck!

There’s lots more you could say about the believability of the Bible’s account compared to all these others, but the main point is: They still remember!!!

If you like this topic be sure to listen to this episode of Creation Today’s interview with Jeremy Wiles who’s been to a bunch of these places and heard their stories straight from the people!

I’m not going to link to it, but I saw a page where someone stopped believing the Bible because he claims there is no evidence of a massive flood just a few thousand years ago.  I have a verse for him:

Jesus quoted, That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them. Mark 4:12

Here’s an article from Answers in Genesis on the seaworthiness of Noah’s ark.

God said, For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.  For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath mercy on thee. Isaiah 54:9,10

The edition I have of Eternity in the Hearts from 1984 only cost 75c from half.com or there’s an updated one from Christian Book Distributors for $10 (both plus shipping)

Free Book Friday: Frozen In Time

I’m thrilled to be the hostess for Master Books weekly giveaway today!CS4K-Frozen-In-Time

Frozen in Time, by Michael Oord

Living in Alaska, we all had seen the skeletons of Mammoths and Mastadons. Hearing about how some had been frozen with buttercups still in their stomachs was terrifying and exciting. What would the tundra have been like with such, well, mammoth beasts wandering around? It turns out, pretty unrecognizable.

I hadn’t realized until reading this book Michael Oord was the one who came up with the most popular Creationist theory of how the Ice Age could have worked. He looks at all kinds of evidence for this period, much of it from the 1,000s of preserved bodies and bones of the Mammoths.

From what the table of contents shows, it looks like about half the book focuses on the big extinct Proboscidea [members of the elephant kind]. The other half shows all sorts of factors and evidences for the Ice Age. Oord has included some exciting stuff and has given me several ideas for more posts.

English: Tent of Nomads in Tibet

Tent of Nomads in Tibet

There is even a section on how the Ice Age would have affected people. Oord doesn’t cover everything, it would take several books this size to cover all the info I’m aware of, but what he does talk about was eye opening. I’m itching to tell you about some of those things, too!

As we’ve come to expect, Master Books does a great job giving us a book that is high quality and well researched.

The reading level isn’t too bad, but is written for the serious layman. It would be good to have in your home library by the time the kids get to be about 12.

New Leaf Publishing Group has an article with a longer description of the book HERE

Alright, now for the giveaway rules:

If you’ve signed up for any of Master Books offers, you know they usually have a “Rafflecopter” to earn points by signing up for things or sharing about them. I don’t think that works on WordPress.com where my blog is hosted, so we’re doing it the “easy” way.

You get one entry by leaving a comment

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So, if you use social media, please help us out. In your comment, let us know which form is your favorite for following us and if you’ve let your friends know about Master Books giveaway today (I know, it’s tempting to keep the odds in your favor by not letting anyone know, but the one time I got a free book I’d shared with my followers and won anyway. 🙂 )

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The stormy wind comes from its chamber,
    and the driving winds bring the cold.
God’s breath sends the ice,
    freezing wide expanses of water. Job 37:9-10 NLT

Folded Rock Layers-Zion Nation Park, Wikimedia

Ocean and Coastal Features left behind by the Ice Age

Continental Shelf, Florida

Continental Shelf, Florida

What kinds of marks would hundreds of years of lower sea levels leave on the earth?  Can we still see these signs?  Here are some of the evidences I’ve been able to find:

I want to start with a great picture that clearly shows erosion like we see all the time above water, but this one is submerged off the coast of Los Angeles.

This bit of the Wikipedia page on the continental shelves tells us that most of the sediment found on them come from the Ice Age.

There were a number of gigantic underwater landslides as the sea levels rose around the world as well.  There were ones of the northwest coast of Africa,  some off the coast of Norway, over 15 around the islands of Hawaii.  The ones off Hawaii caused unbelievable wave damage with high water marks as high as 1000 ft (304m) above today’s sea level!!!

Next we turn to today’s coastal features.  We know that they are often formed by things that were happening during the Ice Age.  Some are obvious like the fjords of Norway, Alaska, and New Zealand (be sure to look at these breathtaking pictures!). Others are not so obvious, like the bays we build our sea ports in.  You can take your pick of countries to learn from.  The USA says this all happened 16,000 years ago and has slightly better pictures.  New Zealand says they formed about 15,000 years ago and has more info. Really these pages are so similar, I think they were copying each other.

Victoria and Tasmania showing the Bassian Plai...

Victoria and Tasmania showing the Bassian Plain filling as Sea Levels rise about 14,000 years ago.

For those of you in high school, you might have a look at this PDFfrom Nova Scotia.  They talk about a number of landforms that were formed at this time like sea cliffs and barrier sandbars which would make a great geology study. Interestingly, they say the sea levels rose just 10,000 years ago (do you think they all might just be guessing??)

Diagram of the continental shelf and slope of ...

continental shelf and slope of the southeastern United States

There is also evidence that coral reefs were farther out and deeper during the Ice Age.  This is a really long scientific PDF about the drowned coral reeks beyond the Great Barrier Reef of Australia and around the world.

During my research today I also found a few things to add to my Submerged Ice Age Ruins and The Ice Age: Part 1 posts.

Psalm 93  The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.
The floods have lifted up, O LORD, the floods have lifted up their voice; the floods lift up their waves.
The LORD on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of the sea.
Thy testimonies are very sure: holiness becometh thine house, O LORD, for ever.