Folded Mountains: Part 2

 Peña Ubiña Spain

Continued from The Biggest Wrinkles Ever: Folded Mountains

We know that there are 4 kinds of mountains:

  • Volcanoes
  • Highlands surrounded by eroded valleys
  • Raised up crustal Rocks (with 2 sub-types, domes and fault-block)
  • Scrunched up crustal Rocks

This week we’re learning about this fourth type: Fold Mountains. Not only are these whole ranges folded, but many of them have some amazing folded rocks in them. I saw some of these enormous folds while visiting the Rockies around Grand Cache, Alberta. Unfortunately, I didn’t have a good camera with me to show you pictures, but you can have a look on a search engine and view some spectacular photos.


How do you get huge sheets of rock to fold up like this without breaking them in pieces?  Turns out rocks don’t always break when they are being forced to change direction.  I had to search and search to find these things out, but it turned out that the page above mentions all 5 of the commonly taught causes for rocks to bend without breaking (called fracturing).

  • (1) Softer rocks can bend more than hard rocks like quartz and granite under everyday conditions.
  • All rocks can bend more when they are (2) hot and (3) pressurized down deep in the earth (15km or more).

But the rocks I’m talking about weren’t down deep, they were near the surface when they were pushed together.

English: Folded rocks near Collieston. This is...

Folded rocks near Collieston. This is a splendid example of a tight recumbent fold, showing the forces which deformed these rocks during the Caledonian mountain building 400 million years ago. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Then the Tulane geology page said the Uniformitarians’ favorite cause with confusing words.  I found a clearer example of this explanation on a science for 3-6th Graders page, “High temperatures and slow deformation rates favor ductile behavior, while low temperature and fast deformation rates lead to brittle behavior.”  In other words,

  • (4) if you bend the rocks slowly enough, you can keep them from breaking.

To find out how slowly they are expecting the rocks to be able to bend without breaking I had to do even more searching.  I found the answer in a really long PDF that would make great geology reading when you get to be a Senior.  Here’s what they say, “Like faults, folds form slowly over millions of years, as rock layers gradually yield to differential stress and bend.”
Ah, ha, so that’s how they explain these things! Just give the rocks a dose of unobservable time and you’ve cleared up all your problems with folded rocks.  No one can possibly prove them wrong for the next 10,000,000 years or so!

Exposed rock layers in Iran as seen from the International Space Station

Exposed rock layers in Iran as seen from the International Space Station (for scale, that dark S shape is a lake)

Now for reason #5 (which was rather hard to find on the non-Creationist web, so listen close).  Rocks can bend rather than break when they are… full of water.  Now, when would we have had a lot of water-soaked rocks being pushed together and forced up?  I ran into an Old Earth Creationist site that said this idea of folded rocks being proof of the flood is nonsense because of the other ways to get them slowly.  They mentioned an unnamed chemical “solution” that would make rocks more bendable, but the only chemical I can find that does this is water!

Well, it looks like we’re back to what Answers in Genesis and the rest have been saying for years.  Water and soft, young rocks can fold.  Old rocks folding over millions of years?  That takes as much faith as it does to believe what Noah recorded.

Which removes the mountains, and they know not: which overturns them in His anger. Job 9:5

Behold, He withholds the waters, and they dry up: also He sends them out, and they overturn the earth.  Job 12:15

He puts forth His hand upon the rock; He overturns the mountains by the roots.”  Job 28:9

These are the main verses talked about in ICR’s Great Turnovers! article.

Don’t miss my Quotes for the Day!

Answers in Genesis: Rock Layers Folded not FracturedCreation Ministries International: Should atheists be free to teach what they believe?; and Folding Solid Rocks  This one is great with an account of a tree fossil upright through folded layers!

Institute for Creation Research: technical PDF of Tight Fold and Clastic Dikes.  If you take a minute to read the “abstract” you will see that Uniformitarians must believe that sandstone remained soft for millions of years before being bent.

NOAA-Ocean-Waves Folded Rock Layers-Zion Nation Park, Wikimedia Wikipedia-Geologic Column Chart

The Geologic Column

Geologic time scale covering the Precambrian a...

Geologic time scale

If you’ve ever looked at a book about geology at a public school or the library, you probably ran into one of these charts.  Ever since Charles Lyell made Uniformitarianism popular, many people have looked at the order of the sedimentary rocks as “proof” that the earth is millions of years old and that Evolution is true.  But, is that what the rocks really show?

First, we have to remember that we cannot actually ‘see’ the past in the rocks. Every scientist makes guesses about what the things we find in the rocks actually mean. What we do see is layers of sedimentary rocks where we find different types of animals and plants preserved as fossils.

People claim there are 26 places in the world that contain all the layers a chart like this one shows.  (I’ll put up a link at the end to an Evolutionist saying this.)  Interestingly, they are all in a basin (a bowl-like valley).  Since this would have protected the sand and other things that dropped out of the water when the waves calmed down, it makes a lot of sense that these places would have such neat layering.  (I’m going to post later about other interesting things that happen in some of these basins (ever heard of Ayer’s Rock?).

Everywhere else in the world we find missing layers (called Unconformities), out of order layering, which would mean (if the timeline idea was correct) that millions of years vanished from most places and sometimes earlier times happened after later times!

So, since we have decided to believe the only eye witnesses there were of these events (Noah’s family and God), what do we actually see in the fossil layers?  We see that the lowest rocks contain tiny sea creatures.  The next layers up have larger sea creatures.  As you get closer to the surface, lizards, then really big lizards (aka Dragons), then little mammals, then big mammals were buried.

This fits in nicely with a Global Flood that took five months (Genesis 7:24) to completely bury the highest points on earth at the time.  Things that were near the bottom of the water got buried first, then larger fish and sea creatures, then finally land animals that lived near the water and that weren’t fast enough to run away.  Last to be buried were the quick creatures, far from the old oceans, whose bodies took longer to sink after drowning.  Check out this PDF with cool pictures of Pre-Flood environments from Answers in Genesis.  And two more from Biblical that explain how the Geologic Column fits in with the Flood:  Page 1 and Page 2.

Just thinking about the billions of dead things the rocks have preserved for us to find is sad and scary.  When God said He was going to start over again, He meant it!

Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts,  And saying, Where is the promise of his [Jesus’] coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation[uniformitarianism].   For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water:  Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished:  But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. II Peter 3:3-7

Praise our powerful, just, and merciful Creator for the protection we can have in Jesus’ blood!!

The Entire Geologic Column in North Dakota by an Evolutionist (scroll to the end of the article to read about the other places in the world with all the layers)

Creation Ministries International’s response to this claim

Geologic Column is a General Flood Order with many exceptions CMI

Institute for Creation Research: Understanding Evidence for the Biblical Timescale     

Really long, big-word-using fossil layer article from Answers in Genesis

description of the Layers in the Grand Canyon Region from Answers in Genesis

Folded Rock Layers-Zion Nation Park, Wikimedia Fossilized Leaves in Travertine